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Six Risk Factors for Low Bone Mineral Density in Lupus

Six Risk Factors for Low Bone Mineral Density in Lupus

  • Bone with osteoperosis (©Lightspring/Shutterstock.com)
    Bone with osteoperosis (©Lightspring/Shutterstock.com)

Low bone mineral density and osteoporosis are well-known comorbidities with systemic lupus erythematosus. In this slideshow, we highlight six of the most common risk factors for low bone mineral density in SLE.


(1)    Cramarossa G, Urowitz MB, Su J, Gladman D, Touma Z. Prevalence and associated factors of low bone mass in adults with systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus. 2016. doi:10.1177/0961203316664597.

(2)    Souto MI, Coelho A, Guo C, et al. The prevalence of low bone mineral density in Brazilian patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and its relationship with the disease damage index and other associated factors. J Clin Densitom 2012; 15: 320–327.

(3)    Mendoza-Pinto C, Garcia-Carrasco M, Sandoval-Cruz H, et al. Risks factors for low bone mineral density in pre-menopausal Mexican women with systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Rheumatol 2009; 28: 65–70.

(4)    Yeap SS, Fauzi AR, Kong NC, et al. Influences on bone mineral density in Malaysian premenopausal systemic lupus erythematosus patients on corticosteroids. Lupus 2009; 18: 178–181.

(5)    Lin T, Grossman J. Prevention and Treatment of Bone Disease in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Current Treatment Options in Rheumatology Curr Treat Options in Rheum. 2016;2(1):21-35. doi:10.1007/s40674-016-0034-y.

(6)    Jacobs J, Korswagen LA, Schilder AM, van Tuyl LH, Dijkmans BA, Lems WF, et al. Six-year follow-up study of bone mineral density in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Osteoporos Int : J Estab Result Coop Eur Found Osteoporos Natl Osteoporos Found U S A. 2013;24(6):1827–33.

(7)    Mak A, Lim JQ, Liu Y, Cheak AA, Ho RC. Significantly higher estimated 10-year probability of fracture in lupus patients with bone mineral density comparable to that of healthy individuals. Rheumatol Int. 2013;33(2):299–307

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